There are currently no vaccines or prophylactic medications to protect against contracting any of the forms of leishmaniasis although research is ongoing. All military personnel who serve in leishmaniasis endemic areas should be informed of the nature of the risks of leishmaniasis and measures to counter them. Precautions to help prevent being bitten by sand flies, which could lead to leishmaniasis, can be found in the following resources:
- Leishmaniasis Just the Facts, Army Public Health Center Fact Sheet 18-008-1115, November 20 15
- DoD Insect Repellent System Web page, Army Public Health Center
- Protection Against Mosquitoes, Ticks, and Other Arthropods, CDC Health Information for International Travel (commonly called the Yellow Book), 2016
The Armed Forces Pest Management Board Technical Guide (TG) 49, Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae): Significance, Surveillance, and Control in Contingency Operations, January 2015 provides basic information about the biology, surveillance and control of sand flies in a military setting.