Other Substance Misuse

Substance misuse, and in particular, use of Illicit drugs, to include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used non-medically, and related addiction costs the U.S. more than $193 billion per year in crime, health, and productivity, spanning criminal justice, crime victim, hospital and emergency department, insurance administration, labor participation, specialty treatment, incarceration, premature mortality, and other costs.[ Reference 1 ]; Per the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an estimated 24.6 million or 9.4 percent of Americans age 12 or older were current illicit drug users, meaning they had used an illicit drug during the prior month.[ Reference 2 ]

According to the 2011 Department of Defense Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel (HRB), almost 90 percent of active-duty service members reported having received drug testing in the past year. Aggressive testing, along with DoD policies, may contribute to the low illicit drug use (1.4 percent) of active-duty service members in comparison to civilians (9.4 percent).[ Reference 3 ] Active-duty service members who responded to the HRB also reported low prescription drug misuse (1.3 percent) with the most popular misused prescription drugs being steroids (16.6 percent) and stimulants (11.6 percent).